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A study of 15 Swedish athletes by the Stockholm Institute of Gymnastics and Sports found an improvement of nearly 10 percent in aerobic performance.
"Average" red blood cell volume of the population at sea level is about 45% red blood cells.
In 1963, the Council of Europe gave a definition of doping.
"Doping means to make use of physiological substances in immoderate quantity or abnormal method from healthy people whose only aim is to obtain an artificial increase of the performance during the competition".
After the Tour de France had finished, Joop Zoetemelk was found to have used doping, which he confessed later.
Zoetemelk was penalized by 10 minutes in the general classification, but kept his second place. cycling team's successes were coloured by revelations that riders had blood transfusions before their events, a practice known as blood-doping. Mike Fraysse, a former president of the federation, was demoted from first to third vice-president.
The Wiel's-Groene Leeuw affair – At the stage from Luchon to Carcassonne of the 1962 Tour de France, twelve riders fell ill and said 'bad fish' was the cause.
Tour doctor Pierre Dumas realized they had all been given the same drug by the same soigneur.
Riders suffered hallucinations from the exhaustion and perhaps the drugs.
They made me go into a room, I pissed into some bottles and they closed them without sealing them.
Then they took my name, my date of birth, without asking for anything to check my identity.
Thus the list contains doping incidents, those who have tested positive for illegal performance-enhancing drugs, prohibited recreational drugs or have been suspended by a sports governing body for failure to submit to mandatory drug testing.
It also contains and clarifies cases where subsequent evidence and explanation has shown the parties to be innocent of illegal practice.